Monday, December 15, 2008

Where did it all begin?

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Part 1:

Where did it all begin?

America Tests on its Own PreWar: 1
American Indian Tribes in 1860s; chlolera-infected blankets.
In 1900; the “American Army doctors in the Philippines infected five prisoners with a variety of plague and 29 prisoners with beriberi.
In 1915 “a doctor working with government grants exposed 12 prisoners in Mississippi to pellagra, an incapacitating condition that attacks the nervous system.

In 1942 US “Army and Navy doctors infected 400 prisoners in Chicago with malaria in experiments designed to get ‘a profile of the disease and develop a treatment for it.’ Most of the inmates were black and none was informed of the risks of the experiment. Nazi Doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago malaria experiments as part of their defense.” 2

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: 1932-1972 : 3
The US Public Health Service; used penicillin to treat syphilis beginning in 1943, but it purposely withheld it from dealing with certain subjects.
The subjects were not informed they had syphilis.
Mainly black people.

World War II:

Nazi experiments:
Dachau tests with mescaline; Intention is enhanced interrogation through external manipulation: Mescaline.
Goal: "to eliminate the will of the person examined."
Aviation tests: more lethal
Underlining point: unwitting tests with potential / unknown lethal results. +

Important: It is important to address John Marks point: I am not trying to compare the CIA to Nazi’s or consider their experimentations on the same level. I am simply establishing a discourse and examining the flaw in the US decision to go on the defensive rather than embrace the important lessons learned in the Nuremburg trials:
“From the Dachau experiments came the cruelty that man was capable of heaping upon his fellows in the name of advancing science and helping his country gain advantage in war. To say that the Dachau experiments are object lessons of how far people can stretch ends to justify means is to belittle by clichĂ© what occurred in the concentration camps. Nothing the CIA ever did in its postwar search for mind-control technology came close to the callous killing of the Nazi "aviation research." Nevertheless, in their attempts to find ways to manipulate people, Agency officials and their agents crossed many of the same ethical barriers. They experimented with dangerous and unknown techniques on people who had no idea what was happening.” – John Marks

Nuremburg trials:
Focus upon Doctors Trial:

Nazi Defense argument:
Nazi scientist attitude:
All said that issues of moral and personal responsibility are moot in state-sponsored research. What is critical, testified Dr. Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician, is "whether the experiment is important or unimportant." (Marks)
I want to establish the difference between largescale death-count resulting from these experiements and more abstract longterm consequences. The public forum certainly reacts differently to less blatantly macabre images.
The Defense links the Malaria US experiments as akin to Nazi Experiments

Nuremburg Code on Scientific research4
Voluntary consent
Failure to address past:
“By the early 1950s, there were gestures in the direction of a protectionist attitude toward human subjects, but they were in a fairly abstract, philosophical vein rather than in a robust set of institutionalized policies and procedures. An example is the Army's failure to implement a compensation program for prisoners injured in malaria or hepatitis studies when it was contemplated in the late 1940s.” 56

The essential feature of the weak form of protectionism was its nearly wholesale reliance on the judgment and virtue of the individual researcher. Thus when the World Medical Association began deliberations in 1953 on the first Declaration of Helsinki, informed consent was made a far less prominent feature than it had been in the Nuremberg Code, which the medical community found unacceptably legalistic. Helsinki also introduced the notion of surrogate consent, permitting research when individuals are no longer competent to provide consent themselves. These moves place a substantial burden on the self-control of the individual researcher.^sup 5^

The US never adopts this: Big problem: The Nuremberg Code has not been officially adopted in its entirety as law by any nation or as ethics by any major medical association.

Because: The unethical testing that took place in the US wasn’t held responsible and the Nuremberg code was shaky international ‘suggestion’ more than a legal code, this allowed the CIA to not only unethically test, but also evade repercussion.

As World War II faded into the Korean Conflict, and later stemmed into the broader Cold War containment paranoia, America’s foreign policy architects faced a new set of challenges but also the ability to re-examine and redefine the ethical foundation from which they would proceed. However, the Nuremberg Trials failed to hold any past American operations or experiments deemed unethical by the standards there devised, and failed to establish a concrete ethical code in the legislative realm. This failure allowed the Truman and subsequent Eisenhower administration to simply ignore any broad-scale internal scrutiny and policy amendment pertaining to ethics and experimentation.

This is significant because at the time the remnants of the rouge OSS were transferring into the newly formed CIA, a permanent government organization. Within this dramatic time period with the horrific events of WWII fresh upon the international forum a firm foundation of ethical guidelines to research could have stemmed from the Nuremberg Code. However, as the post-war foundation concerning ethical standards was ambiguous, it allotted the CIA the internal flexibility, which would lead it into MKULTRA.

- small group of people deciding on large scale ethics

And thus: America Tests on its Own Post-War:
This is a segway into specific topic of MKULTRA testing:

1951 the US Army: Norfolk Naval Supply Center

“secretly contaminated the Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia with infectious bacteria. ... Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida were the targets of repeated army bio-weapons experiments in 1956 and 1957. Army CBW researchers released millions of mosquitoes on the two towns in order to test the ability of insects to carry and deliver yellow fever and dengue fever. Hundreds of residents fell ill, suffering from fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, and encephalitis. Several deaths were reported.” 7

1950: Navy sprays bacteria on San Francisco
Relevance: Later Army bacteria was proposed to be LSD.
One of 6 TSS professionals who worked in the early days of MKULTRA:
“ We thought about the possibility of putting some in a city water supply and having the citizens wander around in more or less happy state, not terribly interested in defending themselves.” (perhaps append a footnote about the French City poisoned with ergot.) (58)
(The research upon large numbers of people “fell to the army chemical corps, which also tested LSD and even stronger hallucinogens. The CIA concentrated on individuals.)

Different Experiments in the US: (After Nurembourg Code)

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: 1932-1972 : 8

The US Public Health Service; used penicillin to treat syphilis beginning in 1943, but it purposely withheld it from dealing with certain subjects.
The subjects were not informed they had syphilis.
Mainly black people.
Given the unethical aspects of this experiment, why was it allowed to continue until stopped by public outcry in 1973? Apparently, the long-term experiment was never seriously questioned – as a matter of bureaucratic inertia – since it had continued for such a long time and was allegedly valuable. Further, when new managers were appointed, these new managers were reluctant to rescind decisions of their mentors. (p. 178, 180)

Harold Blauer 1952:
injected with mescaline in the hospital after consenting the first time, he refused the next 4
The US Army Chemical Corps
Court Case is ideal for my paper:

High Oxygen concentration to premature infants
1953 on consent
Burton v. Brooklyn Doctors Hospital, 452 N.Y.S.2d 875 (1982)

Birth and Evolution of the Agency:
What happened in OSS:

The structure of the OSS affected the Structure of the CIA. As the OSS exploited WW2 as a limitless playground under Donovan, the CIA would be built out of a similar such mentality.

Seeds that would lead to MKULTRA:
"truth drug" committee under Dr. Winfred Overholser, head of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington.

spring of 1943, the committee decided that Cannabis indica—or marijuana—showed the most promise, and it started a testing program in cooperation with the Manhattan Project
White Tests Marijuana as a truth drug
Tests marijuana on suspected Communist soldiers stationed in military camps outside Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans. (unwitting)

In 1954, a team was dispatched overseas to perform tests on individuals "representing a Communist-bloc country." 9

Operation Paperclip: a foreshadow of policy to come
Operation Paperclip represented a threshold between the rules of the old “game” and the rules of the new “game” that was to be developed.

Japanese Scientist Shiro Ishii was put on the US payroll post WW2. 10
In a deal from General MacArthur, Ishii “turned over more than 10,000 pages of his “research findings” to the US army, avoided prosecution for war crimes and was invited to lecture at Ft. Derick, the US army bio-weapons research center near Frederick Maryland. “
During the war he headed the Japanese Imperial Army’s bio-warfare unit. Dr. Ishii “had deployed a wide range of biological and chemical agents against Chinese and Allied troops, and had also oepreated a large research center in Manchuria, where he conducted bio-weapons experiments on Chinese, Russian, and American prisoners of war.

He “infected prisoners with tetanus; gave them typhoid-laced tomatoes; developed plague-infected fleas; infected women with syphilis and exploded germ bombs over dozens of POWs tied to stakes.
Nazi Scientist Theordore Benzinger: 11
He “was an expert on battlefield wounds, experiments he gained through explosive experiements conducted on human subjects during the waning stages of WWII.”
He received “a lucrative government contract working as a researcher at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland.”

Establish Why I am focusing on MKULTRA:
the CIA was born out of these threshold era
the LSD tests are indicative of a larger idea
enough time has passed with enough court cases to examine the complete run of the subject- its been through the senate and through countless individual court cases: to be specific there is a beginning, a middle, and an end : This allows us to examine why it started, how it was carried out, what legacies and results came from the testing, and how it was addressed and brought to justice.
Birth of MKULTRA and Soviet Fear
The Cold War was beginning- Soviet Russia went from ally to foe very quickly at the end of world war II.

Justification for aggressive policy:

Media Images of Cardinal on Trial combined with shotty intelligence:
Manchurian Candidate
Soviet Testing – (we had former Nazis running around)

This provokes a need to match Soviet Intelligence:
One of the justifications for the CIA to act the way it did; was to justify things they knew were inconsistent with American policy, and restrained by law; by exploiting the need to remain in touch with the enemy, and presupposing that the enemy would examine all possibilities in the all-encompassing cold war; unethical or not. This assumption of communism would justify such proceeding action. “Defense justified offense.” (56)

Cold War context: (budding paranoia)
Talk about the Cardinal
Give reference to this in Japanese action and policy during the war:
“Moreover, the Japanese militarist government at the time feared communism. Therefore, persons who were suspected and arrested as spies of the USSR or communist resisters were tortured to death. This happened sometimes even in the Japanese homeland, but all the more and oftener in China.”12

Gottlieb’s purpose:
In a 1953 memo to a researcher, Gottlieb gave an indication of the kinds of mind control issues he was interested in for both offensive and defensive purposes: 'Disturbance of memory; discrediting by aberrant behaviour; alteration of sex patterns; eliciting of information; suggestibility; creation of dependence.'13

Then CIA-inspector Lyman B. Kirkpatrick wrote a 1963 Internal report on MKULTRA which was made public in 1975. 14
He discussed its connection with the bureau of Narcotics:
"TSD (Technical Services Division) entered into an informal arrangement with certain cleared and witting individuals in the Bureau of Narcotics in 1955 which provided for the release of MK-ULTRA materials for such testing as those individuals deemed desirable and feasible."

He Discussed the need for a diverse populace:
"The effectiveness of the substances on individuals at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign," Kirkpatrick wrote, "is of great significance, and testing has been performed on a variety of individuals within these categories."

The Program’s Evolution”

First Bluebird tests

Actual Incidents that People were tested upon with LSD from the CIA:

Wayne Ritchie: Former Deputy Marshall who claimed he was drugged with LSD, before trying to hold up a San Franscisco bar in the 1950s. Ritchie’s case relied in part on MKULTRA operative Ira Feldman. 15

Frank Olson

First Bluebird Test: 16
Tested on 12 (mainly black) subjects of “not too high mentality.” (compares to Dachau)
They were informed that the drug they were to be given was new. The experimenters were aware that “LSD experiments had induced schizophrenia” but still assured the subjects that no “serious damage would happen to them.” 150 micrograms where given


1. The Glickman case points to LSD tampering abroad. As The CIA was forced to admit it’s use cases abroad, and a series of coincidental evidence.


Velma Orkilov and Linda McDonald were submitted to an entire of depatterning in Cameron’s program.17 Orlikov received at one point 14 shots of LSD. 18

US Public Health Service in Lexington Ky; “As part of a project aimed at finding a substitute for codeine as a mild pain killing,” military contracts arranged by the Office of Naval Research enabled the CIA to test LSD here. Conducted by Dr. Harris Isbell. 19

NYC Pediatrician Dr. Harold A Abramson conducted CIA funded (funded through the Geschiketer Foundation and later the Macy foundation) LSD testing at Mount Sinai Hospital. 20

State Hospital in Michigan:
(1957-60) The CIA administered the drug to unwitting sexual psychopaths at the state hospital in Michigan.21
“The subjects will be selected from the one hundred and forty-two criminal-sexual psychopaths on whom there is an adequate previous investigation…”
“As far as possible, the actual research man administering the drugs will not be aware of the drug he is administering…”


100s of unwitting students were given LSD at Harvard in the 60s and 70s. 22
The CIA spent “$286,000 to run tests at the Boston Psychopathic Hospital, “between 1952 an 1961”, its linked to the Harvard medical school.
“Subjects were not told they were being given mind-altering drugs, the records show. They were only told they were taking part in a drug study. Students were paid $ 25.”

Air force Experiments at different universities: 23


Dr. Ewen Cameron: Late 1950s: Tried to “reprogram his patients at McGill University’s Allan Memorial Institute using a combination of drugs…” He was financed by the CIA and aided through the un-proven help of Dr. Louis Gendreau, deputy commissioner of the penitentiary service and head of medical services, as he “consented to using Canada’s prison population as subjects in a wide array of experiments.” 24
1961 : 23 female inmates at Kingston’s Prison were submitted without consent to LSD tests, “sensory deprivation, and the testing of unlicensed drugs.”
“Hundreds of federal inmates were used as test subjects in scientific experiments during the 1960s and 70s. (untested pharmaceuticals, penicillin and anti-stress pills, spent days in dark cells during sensory-deprivation research, and received painful shocks in studies of cigarette smokers)25

In 1963 LSD and the hallucinogenic drug BZ were administered to 8 black inmates.26

Pharmacologist Carl Pfeiffer conducted LSD experiments at Prisoners at Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and later at Bordentown Reformatory in NJ.27
He claims he “received full informed Consent” from 80-100 patients at the 2 prisons.

Actual Incidents that People were tested upon with LSD from the ARMY:

James Stanley was given LSD in 1958, “he was then a young soldier who thought he was participating in a test of equipment and clothing.”28 This happened to thousands more. 29

The Army “exposed up to 3,000 soldiers to BZ, a powerful hallucinogen under development as a chemical weapon.”30

“The Air Force conducted experiments with LSD at Baylor University and four other schools as part of a Cold War-era research program.” 100 people received the tests; 31
“The other schools involved in the Air Force's LSD research were Duke University, the University of Minnesota, New York University and the University of Missouri, the GAO said. The research was conducted between 1956 and 1971.”

Look into Project OFTEN; “was started in 1968 jointly with the Army Chemical Crops at Edgewood, MD to study the effects of rare drugs.”32

1949-60s : Edgewood Chemical Arsenal in Maryland33
starting in 1949- over 7000 us soldiers were “unwittingly” experimented upon.
“More than 1000 of the soldiers who enlisted in the experiments emerged with serious psychological afflictions and epilepsy: dozens attempted suicide.”
Look at Lloyd Gamble incident: Posted in next section


Dr. Charles Geschickter; Georgetown Professor who took 2.2 million dollars in CIA funding over 13 years. 2 interesting points: 34 It was for the Geschickter Fund for Medical Research.
He said that the CIA mislead the Senate Commission in documents related to funding in 1977. “the agency had overstated its role in research projects and had even paid bills for nonexistent services. Geschickter said he did not know where the money actually went.”
In the end, said Geschickter, “the CIA ended up funding research projects that involved treatments for asthma, high blood pressure, cancer and arthritis. The projects were developed by the researchers, not the agency, he said.”
CIA funding helped Dr. Abramson pay for his research that “contributed to the so-called Cronuscomplex theory of severe, chronic asthma in children, which postulates mutual psychological engulfment between mother and child.”35

Society of Investigation of Human Ecology was “auspice” for CIA research and funding. 36
Dr. Ewen Cameron was given money though this at McGill University.

Part III: Aftermath

Senate Hearings:

“The description of the agency's MK-ULTRA efforts that emerged at yesterday's hearing was more a portrayal of a group of bumbling amateurs than of American James Bonds.”37

Lawsuits and Court Cases:

Dr. Ewan Cameron’s patients: 1998 settlement of $750,000 US and multiple $100,000 payments from Canadian government after 9 former patients sued the government. 38
Dorothy Proctor – given LSD in Canadian Prisons in 1960s, sued successfully.

“After more than 10 years of depositions and CIA diversions and delay the lawsuit wound to an end. Finally, at the beginning of the Bush presidency, the CIA settled for the largest sum of money possible without the formal approval of the Attorney-General. To the nine plaintiffs and the lawyers it was a hard-won victory, but it was not enough.” 39

1986: The Court ran into blocks from the CIA and US court system:40
“The latest setback for the Canadians came recently in a Washington courtroom. A U.S. federal court judge said he wouldn't allow CIA station chiefs to testify about an apology they allegedly delivered to the Canadian government. “
In Ottawa, all attempts by External Affairs Minister Joe Clark to get a fair settlement have failed, even though he raised the issue with U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz. Now, Clark says a Canadian justice department official soon will get a briefing in Washington "on the facts as the U.S. sees them."

Although the CIA funded Cameron’s operation, because they did not “guide or control” his action, they “are not open to lawsuits under the Federal Tort Claims Act.”41
However, those suing “claim the CIA should have known that the experiments were dangerous” citing the death of Dr. Frank Olson. The suggest that the CIA is responsible for negligence.
"The case is about whether an agency of this government should have allowed this thing to go forward when it was so destructive to people," said Leonard S. Rubenstein, legal director of the Mental Health Law Project and an attorney for the former patients.

“The action was filed on Dec. 11, 1980. The CIA has stonewalled every step of the way. The taking of depositions took years. Judge John Garrett Penn took a full year to rule on a motion to dismiss. In October the CIA filed a motion for summary judgment that was not argued until March 10. Judge Penn has still not ruled on that motion, and the trial cannot proceed until he does.” 42
“There is no national security interest at stake here, but national honor is. The government should settle this case promptly and pay the nominal damages. If this is not done, Judge Penn has a responsibility to decide the motion for summary judgment and move to trial without delay.”

James Stanley:
“Sergeant Stanley first filed a federal lawsuit against the government in 1978, naming as defendants former Central Intelligence Agency director Richard Helms, the University of Maryland (where the experiments were conducted), and two doctors assigned to the project. He accused the government and others of gross negligence and violation of his rights. This suit was dismissed. But the 11th US Circuit Court of Appeals allowed last year that he might make a case for injury.” 43

In 1987 the US Supreme Court, “held that legal precedent generally bans damage suits against the government for injuries sustained during military service. They ruled “that the military is exempt from lawsuits by soldiers harmed by programs pursued in the national interest. Associate Justice Antonin Scalia, writing for a 5-to-4 majority, said allowing such litigation ''would disrupt the military regime.''44
Associate Justice William Brennan dissented, saying that ''serious violations of constitutional rights of soldiers must be exposed and punished.''

1996 won $400,577 in court for being given LSD in the army. 45

Clinton Panel urging restitute for radiation victims; 46

Stanley Glickman : November of 1952 was slipped LSD in Paris by some potential CIA agents. 47

He was found after a week of wandering passed out at a Café and taken to the American hospital in Paris.
“There, according to medical records, he was given an EEG and a calming dose of sodium amytal. Not so, according to Glickman, who claimed in his affidavit that he received electroshock therapy via a catheter up his penis, and was dosed with what seemed to be more hallucinogenic substances. He panicked and checked himself out of the hospital, but soon had himself readmitted, remaining for another seven days during which time he believes he was given yet more hallucinogenic drugs”

an affidavit was filed in 1983 and this went to court in 1999 after his death in 1992.

It was very difficult for him after he saw the 1977 hearings to approach the US government for justice. (Look at this article to go into detail)
“Shortly after watching the hearings, Glickman began seeking answers on his own. He contacted Kennedy's staff and the office of the US Attorney General, to no avail. He was advised he needed a lawyer, but that would take money. Unable to raise funds on his own and perhaps seeking further catharsis, he decided to write a film treatment.”
He met Dean Corren, the Hollywood director of Ragtime who offered to help him. Corren learned the similarity between Stanley’s story of a man with a limp, the Gottlieb’s clubfoot.

“Shortly after finding the CIA documents in Washington, Dean Corren began searching for a lawyer to take up Glickman's case. At least a dozen firms said no before their luck turned. Then, one after another, firms accepted but later handed the case on when their approaches were thwarted by government obfuscation. Time and again, courts simply took the agency's word on what information could be safely released from its files. Even 45-year-old documents were not made available without heavy editing.”

The US government has over the years issued various qualified denials in the course of seeking to have the case dismissed. In one brief, government lawyers assert that 'there is no evidence that TSD (the Technical Services Division, whose Chemical Division was headed by Gottlieb) ever engaged in or funded LSD testing or research overseas'.

Lloyd Gamble48
black solider : 1957 : Gamble was informed that he was to test new military clothing, but instead entered a DD/CIA drug program. (offered extended leave, private living quarters, and more frequent conjugal visits)
As he was given LSD, he tried to kill himself.It took 19 years for him to realize what had happened as the Church hearings took place.
The DD denied his involvement, but a photograph indicting his and others role as volunteers “for a program that was in the highest national security interest,” proved this allegation false.
Consequential Results in Court and for families:

1968 Canadian prison experimentee went to court alleging that LSD flashback caused her to steal a sweater and was acquitted after “a psychiatrist testified that LSD exposure could have long-term negative effects.”49

Velma Orkilov’s involvement in Cameron’s program ruined her life and family: Her daughter said to the Winnipeg Free Press, “She was never a complete person again. It was no joy living in that family. I wonder how we lived through it. It was one long nightmare.” 50 “I suffer from chronic depression which sometimes becomes acute…”51

Linda MacDonald: “Linda MacDonald, a 57-year-old Vancouver woman, was admitted to the Allan when she was 25, for fatigue and depression following the birth of her fifth child. She was put into a drug-induced sleep for at least 86 days. She lost all memory of her life, including the ability to read and write. After she was released, she needed toilet training, and eventually lost her husband and six children.” 5253

Keith Lorenz, studied at Harvard and was given LSD unwittingly. 54
“In his letters, the former student said his involvement in the LSD study had "made dramatic changes" in his life, adding that he had dropped out of college, and left the country for many years. He had difficulty adjusting to the experience ever since, Lorenz added. In a letter to the CIA, he said he planned to sue the government for $ 2 million for harm he had suffered.”

James “Whitey” Bulger: was experimented upon in an Atlanta Prison in exchange for a lessened sentence. This had 2 effects:55
“He continues to suffer side effects from the experiments, including nightmares and insomnia. “
“The experiments could become an issue in court some day - not because Bulger would sue, but because the federal government is investigating a criminal enterprise that authorities believe Bulger runs out of South Boston, controlling many of the non-Mafia rackets in and around Boston. If he is indicted, Bulger's participation in the mind-control experiments could be raised by the prosecution or defense, depending on the circumstances.”

Louis Weinstein ; was administered LSD at the Royal Victoria Hospital in the 1950s. 56
His son, Dr. Harvey Weinstein, a Stanford University psychiatrist, has described his father as "a lost soul . . . a poor, pathetic man with no memory, no life."

Master Sgt. James B. Stanley; says his treatment “resulted in periodic hallucinations, illness, and fits of violence, which ruined his marriage.”57

Stanley Glickman was transformed after LSD treatment.58
“Under a doctor's care, his physical health slowly revived, but he never regained his mental equilibrium. He avoided old friends. Once an avid student, he stopped reading books. He never held a steady job, never had another romantic relationship, and never painted again.”
Institutional Abandonment

Air Force at Baylor59
""No effort has been made by the Air Force to determine if the participants' names are available in the universities' records,'' Conahan told a House Government Operations subcommittee that is looking into the government's human experimentation in the1950s and 1960s.

In a 1977 letter to the CIA, Dr. Miles F. Shore, then-director of the Massachusetts Mental Health Center and a professor at Harvard, wrote,
“As far as I can tell, no one who was active in those studies is currently at Mass. Mental Health Center. 'As a result, I have not released any information about the matter and would be just as happy if it were forgotten . . . Further public dissection of this matter can do little good and may do considerable harm.” 60

Canada Mental Hospital: The Commissioner of Penitentiaries inquired in 1968 after the big court case, about the followup that had been in the 1961 study; “Dr. Gendreau said the Penitentiary Service does not have the staff available to look into the matter.” There was no follow up for 30 years. 61

The CIA abandoned and abused its subjects because it viewed their focus ignored their individual interest.
This was the cold war period, when the focus was on spying and counterspying. Thus, the main objective of this mammoth C.I.A. effort, which cost the taxpayers at least $25 million, was to program the experimental subject to do the programmer's bidding, even if it would lead to the subject's destruction. As you reported Aug. 2, 1977, a C.I.A. memorandum of Jan. 25, 1952, asked "whether it was possible to get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature as self-preservation."62

Concealment, Disinformation, and Destruction (CIA Institutional Flaws):

The Clinton Committee on radiation victims, couldn’t identify all those who were tested upon during WWII; 63
''Deliberate attempts by public officials in trusted and often sensitive government positions to conceal the fact of participation from subjects or their families, particularly in the absence of national security justification and for the declared purpose of avoiding potential liability and public embarrassment, are assaults upon the foundations of individual privacy and self-determination.''

The Canadian Prison research was funded through “The society for Human Ecology connected to Cornell University in New York,” 64 that turned out to be a covert front for the US Central Intelligence Agency.”65

Destruction of Files and Deception on MKULTRA’s length

“Richard Helms, in his deposition to Joe Rauh in 1985, admitted that he had destroyed most of the MKUltra documents in 1973, during the government-wide panic caused by Watergate. But MKUltra continued well into the 1970s, and many CIA observers say there is little reason to believe it does not continue today under a different set of acronyms.” 66

The CIA lies about the use of Radiation to the Church Committee:67
1976: the CIA tells the Church Committee that it had never used radiation
In 1991 however, ARTICHOKE documents emerged alluding “that in addition to hypnosis, chemical and psychiatric research, the following fields have been explored… other physical manifestations including heat, cold, atmospheric pressure, and radiation.
Also A 1963 report from the cia’s insperctor general indicates that for more than a decade perivously the agency had been engaged in “research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.
The 1963 report went on to say that CIA director allen Dulles had approved various forms of human experimentation as “avenues to the control of human behavior” including “raditation, electroshock, various fields of psychology, sociology and anthropology, graphology, harassment studies and paramilitary devices and materials.”
1994: Hazel O’Leary (deparment of energy secretary) concluded that the CIA “did explore radiation as a possibility for the defensive and offensive use of brainwashing and other interrogation techniques.”

A 1977 letter from the CIA to Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), who chaired the Select Committee on Intelligence gives a few pieces of information: 68
The unsigned letter also refers to the 1953 death of a Dr. Frank Olson.
Studies were run at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges, 15 research foundations or drugs companies, 12 hospitals and three prisons.
** '”We should certainly assume that the researchers and institutions that cooperated with the CIA on a witting basis acted in good faith and in the belief that they were aiding the government in a legitimate . . . purpose.' For that reason, the letter states the CIA has a 'moral obligation' to protect the researchers and institutions from 'any unjustified embarrassment or damage to their reputations . . .' by keeping their names secret.”
“One project involved paying $ 375,000 to the building fund -- of a private medical institution which is not named. 'Most of the people and institutions involved are not aware of agency sponsorship,' the letter states.”

NATURE OF THE PROGRAM : The CIA creates a massive amount of confidential information (blackouts in documents and undisclosed information etc), which could help the negatively affected participants in its LSD testing.
Shore, who retired as head of the center last year and is now a scholar in residence at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, said in a telephone interview “that all names of study participants were blacked out in documents the facility received from the CIA and he had no information as to who had been given the drug, or their reactions.” 69

The Court upheld the CIA’s “absolute power” in court. (This article goes in depth) In 1985, the Supreme Court ruled to let he CIA keep its sources of information secret, “even if the sources are not confidential and the information itself is not classified.”70

In a 7-to-2 decision written by Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, the court said Congress in 1947 gave the director of central intelligence "very broad authority to protect all sources of intelligence information from disclosure."
Justice Thurgood Marshall, joined by Justice William J. Brennan Jr., agreed that the appeals court erred in ordering the material released. But Marshall said the majority went too far to protect the agency not only from revealing sources but also from revealing what types of information it wanted to collect.
This decision was provoked due to a 1977 inquiry for names of “individuals and institutions” that had performed research in MKULTRA. This request was denied.
The cited reason for the denial was a “1947 law saying the CIA director is required to "protect intelligence sources and methods."
CIA vs. public
The CIA, in a prepared statement, said yesterday's decision in the case, Central Intelligence Agency v. Sims, would "send a powerful message to current and prospective intelligence sources that the agency can, indeed, fulfill their expectations of confidentiality."

Paul Alan Levy, an attorney for Sims and Wolfe, called the ruling a "severe setback for the public's right to learn about abuses by national security agencies and for the principle that decisions of those agencies are subject to judicial review." The agency, he said, would be able to withhold information "even if it does not or cannot show disclosure would be harmful to the national security."

According to one former CIA official, “the program was considered so sensitive that it could not even be included in a secret 1968 study by the CIA itself of the agency's relationships with the academic community.”71

Orders were given that all letters must conceal identities: 72
For instance, a “March 25, 1955, letter from one doctor - whose name is deleted - to another individual - whose name is also deleted - stresses that " all communications MUST BE double enveloped . . . MUST BE addressed" in a certain way and adds that "true or full names MUST NOT appear in any of the correspondence. Reference to personnel may be made by first name and initial or the individual's assigned nom de plume."

CIA Officials were well aware that such actions were unethical. 73
A 1963 report by CIA Inspector General Lyman B. Kirkpatrick said of the drug testing: "The concepts involved in manipulating human behavior are found by many people both within and outside the agency to be distasteful and unethical."

A Feb. 27, 1950, memo to the CIA's chief of scientific intelligence cautioned of one anonymous researcher: "His ethics might be such that he might not care to cooperate in certain more revolutionary phases of our project."

The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials formulated international standards, henceforth adopted by the united states, that “medical experiments on humans were supposed to be for the good of mankind and carried out only with the full and informed consent of the subjects.” This was deliberately disobeyed.74

1953 letter from one doctor to another about LSD testing cited difficulties stemming from awareness that an experiment was being performed: "It is hoped in the next year that subjects on the (deleted) who are essentially normal from a psychiatric point of view, will be given unwitting doses of the drug for psychoterapeutic purposes. In this way, more valuable experiments will probably be carried out, in spite of hospital conditions.”

At the switch of MKULTRA into the Bureau of Narcotics, the Kirkpatrick report discusses the fictitious denial of the Bureau’s chief’s awareness.
The report added that while "covert testing" was being transferred to the bureau, its chief would disclaim any knowledge of it. 75
Lies about the extent and length of MKULTRA: 76
Jimmy Carter’s CIA Director Admiral Stansfield Turner to congressional committees and the press that the program “had been phased out in 1963 and had only involved drug experimentation.”
In reality, as the records portray, it had gone until 1973 and “involved a quest to develop techniques for mind control, including electro-shock and psychosurgery.” The CIA wanted to make their Manchurian Candidate scenario a reality and didn’t pause for ethics, public or institutional approval, or failures to achieve their objective.

Mind Control and Behavior Modification experiments from MKULTRA were echoed in “violence reduction” research under Reagan in California.
“Two physicians from Harvard, Dr. Frank E. Ervin, a neuropsychiatrist, and Dr. Vernon H. Mark, a neurosurgeon, in a letter to the journal of the American Medical Association, proposed a surgical strategy” to resolve violent race protests after the murder of Martin Luther King. The proposed brain tampering with electric charges and Reagan allowed research to take place in California; also Alabama, Minneapolis, Syracuse etc. Many prisoners were created into vegetables. 77

2. Such testing continues today as can be seen in the first Persian Gulf War.
1 p. 83 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
2 p. 83 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
3 Bad Blood by James H. Jones
4 Fifty years later: The significance of the Nuremberg Code
Evelyne Shuster. The New England Journal of Medicine. Boston: Nov 13, 1997.Vol.337, Iss. 20; pg. 1436, 5 pgs
5 Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, The Human Radiation Experiments (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 55-56.
6 Goodbye to all that
Jonathan D Moreno. The Hastings Center Report. Hastings-on-Hudson: May/Jun 2001.Vol.31, Iss. 3; pg. 9, 10 pgs
7 p. 83 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
8 Bad Blood by James H. Jones
9 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washinton Post August 3 1977
10 p. 151 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
11 p. 151 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
12 Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 10 (2000), 179-180. 1. "Factories of Death"
13 Conspiracy; The Observer February 14, 1999
14 The Diaries of a CIA Operative: The Washington Post, September 5th 1997
15 San Francisco Chronicle 2005
16 p. 154 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
17 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
18 Victims of 1950s Mind Control Experiments Settle With CIA; The Washington Post October 5, 1988
19 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washinton Post August 3 1977
20 Abstract: New York Times August 2nd 1977
21 Buncher, The CIA and the Security Debate: 1971-75. Facts on File, Inc: New York, 1976.
22 Harvard Tested LSD on students for the CIA; The Boston Herald, September 30, 1994
23 Cold War LSD test conducted at Baylor; The Houston Chronicle September 1994
24 How a Mad Scientist Went Unchecked; The Ottawa Citizen June 24, 2001
25 LSD ‘guinea pigs’ wins admissions ; The Ottawa Citizen June 23, 2001
26 CIA linked To Mind-Control Drug Experiments; The New York Times, December 4th 1980
27 Abstract: New York Times August 2nd 1977
28 Ex-Soldier wins LSD suit; The Gazette (montreal) March 7th 1996
29 Panel Urges Damages for ‘Immoral’ Tests; The San Francisco Chronicle, March 7th, 1996
30 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
31 Cold War LSD test conducted at Baylor; The Houston Chronicle September 1994
32 CIA Secrets: The New York Times June 16 1980
33 p. 154 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
34 The Gang That Couldn’t Spray Straight; The Washington Post September 21, 1977
35 Dr. Harold A. Abramson is Dead; The New York Times. October 1 1980
36 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washington Post August 3 1977
37 The Gang That Couldn’t Spray Straight; The Washington Post September 21, 1977
38 How a Mad Scientist Went Unchecked; The Ottawa Citizen June 24, 2001
39 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
40 CIA Victims Still Suffering; Toronto Star January 7th 1986
41 Victims of 1950s Mind Control Experiments Settle With CIA; The Washington Post October 5, 1988
42 A CIA Experiment: The Aftermath; The Washington Post (editorial) August 8th 1987
43 High Court Sides with Military; The Christian Science Monitor June 26, 1987
44 High Court Sides with Military; The Christian Science Monitor June 26, 1987
45 Ex-Soldier wins LSD suit; The Gazette (montreal) March 7th 1996
46 Panel Urges Damages for ‘Immoral’ Tests; The San Francisco Chronicle, March 7th, 1996
47 Conspiracy; The Observer February 14, 1999
48 p. 154 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
49 How a Mad Scientist Went Unchecked; The Ottawa Citizen June 24, 2001
50 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
51 Victims of 1950s Mind Control Experiments Settle With CIA; The Washington Post October 5, 1988
52 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
53 Canada settles ’63 brainwash case; USA TODAY November 19, 1992
54 Mass. Hospital Tried to Keep Lid on LSD Tests;; The Boston Globe January…
55 Whitey Bulger, while inmate, was volunteer in LSD studies; The Boston Globe January 11, 1994
56 A CIA Experiment: The Aftermath; The Washington Post (editorial) August 8th 1987
57 High Court Sides with Military; The Christian Science Monitor June 26, 1987
58 Conspiracy; The Observer February 14, 1999
59 Cold War LSD test conducted at Baylor; The Houston Chronicle September 1994
60 Harvard Tested LSD on students for the CIA; The Boston Herald, September 30, 1994
61 How a Mad Scientist Went Unchecked; The Ottawa Citizen June 24, 2001
62 Human Guinea Pigs Are American as Apple Pie; The New York Times (editorial) January 11th 1994.
63 Panel Urges Damages for ‘Immoral’ Tests; The San Francisco Chronicle, March 7th, 1996
64 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
65 Prison Therapist wanted to try Brainwashing; The Ottawa Citizen October 5, 1998
66 Mind Control: My Mother, The CIA and LSD, The Observer October 16, 1994
67 p. 160 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
68 Harvard Tested LSD on students for the CIA; The Boston Herald, September 30, 1994
69 Mass. Hospital Tried to Keep Lid on LSD Tests;; The Boston Globe Januar
70 Court Gives CIA Full Power to Keep its Sources Secret; Washington Post April 17th, 1985
71 Lengthy Mind-Control Research by CIA Is Detailed: Washington Post August 3rd 1977
72 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washinton Post August 3 1977
73 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washington Post August 3 1977
74 Lengthy Mind Control Research by CIA is Detailed; The Washington Post August 3 1977
75 The Diaries of a CIA Operative: The Washington Post, September 5th 1997
76 p. 106 Whiteout; Alexander Cockburn and Jeffery St. Clair
77 Human Guinea Pigs Are American as Apple Pie; The New York Times (editorial) January 11th 1994.

1 comment:

Tim Fleming said...

Operation Paperclip exacerbated the Cold War; in fact, America, and its military/intelligence spheres took a sharp turn towards fascism, as imported Nazis began exerting their influence on foreign and domestic policy. Much of America's downfall since WWII can be traced to the Paperclip Nazis and their CIA protectors.

Tim Fleming
author,"Murder of an American Nazi"